Political Marketing in the Models of Communication – Does an Exemplary Strategic View of Marketing Exist?
Information is one of the factors that influences the form of co-existence and cooperation of modern communities. Numerous experts describe modern communities as ‘communities of information’. Therefore, it is crucial to manage information in order to efficiently influence the functioning of social systems, including political systems. The management of information is widely questioned. It refers to the transmission of politically relevant information from one element to the remaining elements of a political system, followed by the circulation of this information between political and social systems. Relevant information of course also incorporates ideas, values and attitudes. Mass media in general play an important role in the mechanisms of authority. The way in which media govern is based on symbolic authority that implies the ability to use symbolic forms, accepted as expressions that transfer information and symbolic content so as to intervene in and influence the course of actions and events. Sources that allow information and communication to become more public thus play a crucial role in the exercise of this authority. A new form of political communication is political marketing. Political marketing is defined in two ways. One corresponds with the technical understanding of marketing. In this context, the main point is the functional aspect, connected with the voters’ determination to vote for a particular candidate or a political party, by applying given methods, techniques and social activities. The second point of view defines political marketing as a social process which is continuous and dynamic, that controls social life, and takes place in a community. The origin of political marketing can be traced back to the creation of the modern mass media. In the meantime, political marketing has become a way to improve the information transfer in communities that are said to be facing so-called ‘avalanches of information’, which allows reaching a particular ‘voter’. The phenomenon of political marketing has become the focus of a substantial number of research projects. However, these projects are limited to the tactical component of this subject, including mainly the analysis of election campaigns. Political marketing is crucial to our political realities, and there is a need for more research on the question of the significance of political marketing at a strategic level. The necessary perspective that needs to be used (and accepted) to look at political marketing is that of social process, which will enable us to carry out a more comprehensive study of political marketing.