PSB Regulation in Poland. Systemizing the transition from state broadcasting to Public Service Broadcasting (1989-2015) from a participatory Media Governance perspective.
PSB Regulation in Poland
Systemizing the transition from state broadcasting to Public Service Broadcasting (1989-2015) from a participatory Media Governance perspective.
Abstract. The PhD-project deals with the development of PSB regulation in Poland since the socio-political transition of 1989 until today. It aims at providing systematic evidence of the disproportionate influence on PSB's political-administrative system, as well as portraying alternative forms of governance. This will be discussed in the context of the transformation of the statehood, political expansion and co-regulation.
Keywords: PSB, civil society, participatory media governance, transformation, actor-centered institutionalism
Two trends can be identified in the regulation of the Public Service Broadcasting (PSB) in Poland, which have had a major impact on the operation of the political-administrative system. Firstly, a management crisis in the political system in many Central and Eastern European countries, which comes from the disproportionately high level of governmental influence on the broadcasting legislation. Secondly, and parallel to the first development, many social scientists in the “democratic west”, in light of growing societal complexity and functional differentiation, began to critically interact with the role of the state as a sole regulator (see Mayntz 2010: 39; Papado-poulos 2010: 2). Poland was not excluded from the broad developments in the media, i.e. going from a social democratic ideal and welfare-state to a neo-liberal vision of society and the market system (see Jakubowicz 2007: 44; Jakubowicz/Sükösd 2008: 18). However, civil society organisations such as The Citizens Committee of the public media (Komitet Obywatelski Mediów Publicznych), have also participated in the process of PSB relevalant legislation and regulation. Such developments can be embedded within the theoretical framework of participatory democratization of democracy (see Crouch 2008), particularly in the media of the participatory Media Governance (see Demirović/Walk 2011; Donges 2007; Kleinsteuber/Nehls 2011).
The media governance paradigm implies a modified interaction between the politi-cal-administrative system and society, and suggests a horizontal shift in the political system towards a political society. To investigate these assumptions within the PSB regulation in Poland I apply a PSB governance model, which encompasses PSB in a network of social systems: economy, politics and society. This model builds upon the assumption that the balance of power between the three variables is essential to the effectiveness and legitimacy of PSB. The model derives from the actor-centered institutionalism and Uwe Schimank's actor-strukture-dynamics model (2010: 350) as well as from Patrick Donges' portrayal of the broadcasting model (2002: 113). Both authors deny the participant status to society. It is precisely here that the PSB governance model comes into action.
Starting with the model, which represents PSB regulation within the context of its system environments, I will measure the impact of the different actors (political, economic and social) on PSB regulation within the period of 1989-2015 and syste-mize this impact along the indicators of the PSB Governance model. For this pur-pose, I will analyze the relevant legal documents and literature and conduct expert interviews with involved experts. The investigation time points are marked by the milestones of the Broadcasting Act’s amendments and of the attempts to influence the PSB after a change in government. Starting by the periodization prepared in the International Transformation Research as well as the indicators for a successfully running transformation of the media system, which was specially prepared for the media sector they should be extended to modes in the direction of horizontal partici-pation and bottom-up approaches.
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